UKRAINE – is a country of Central-East Europe. It occupies the territory of Southern West part of East-European Plain, part of the Carpathians and the Crimea Mountains. The territory from North to South is 893 km, from West to East – 1316 km. Ukraine lies within moderate latitudes and has ports on the Black sea and the Azov sea. Geoposition between Eastern and Western peoples and cultures made a great impact on the history and now-a-day development of Ukraine. Ukraine has inland and marine borders of 7590 km. The inland border passes for 5631 km and consists of 3 areas: Western, Eastern and Northern. The length of marine border is 1959 km. Ukraine borders on Russian Federation (inland border of 2063 km), Republic of Belarus (975 km), Republic of Poland (542,5 km), Republic of Slovakia (98 km), Hungary (135 km), Romania (608 km) and Republic of Moldova (1194 km).

Nature and Climate of Ukraine

The Ukrainian relief is almost plain. Plains occupy 95% of inland territory. Mountains – 5%. Three zones –mixed forests, forest-steppe and steppe, present the plain landscapes. Two climate zones – moderate latitudes and sub-tropical on Southern coast of Crimea – present climate of Ukraine. Mountainous regions have special climate conditions because of vertical ruggedness, different steepness of slopes, local atmosphere circulations etc. In general, Ukraine belongs to countries with moderate climate of four seasons within a year. Climate conditions influence on economy, tourism development, allow to use the energy of the wind and the Sun.


The territory of Ukraine is equal to 603,7 th sq km or 5,7% of European territory and 0,44% of the World. Ukraine is bigger then France (544 th sq km), Spain (505 th sq km), Sweden (450 th sq km), Germany (356,3 th sq km), Poland (312,7 th sq km). Thanks to beneficial geoposition, wide net of air transport, railroads, marine and auto transport, Ukraine is to be a transit country for passengers and cargos of different countries.

Administrative structure

Ukraine consists of the Crimean Autonomous Republic and 24 regions (oblast): Vinnytsya region, Volyn region, Dnipropetrovs’k region, Donets’k region, Zhytomyr region, Zakarpattya region, Zaporizhya region, Ivano-Frankivs’k region, Kyiv region, Kirovohrad region, Luhans’k region, Lviv region, Mykolayiv region, Odesa region, Poltava region, Rivne region, Sumy region, Ternopil region, Kharkiv region, Kherson region, Khmelnytsky region, Cherkasy region, Chernihiv region, Chernivtsi region. Kyiv and Sevastopol are the cities of special status, stated by laws of Ukraine. There are 490 districts, 446 cities, 907 towns and 10196 villages. Territorial structure is based on the principles of indivisibility and unity of the country, the unity of centralization and decentralization of power, balance of social-economic development of regions, according to their historical, economic, geographical and demography peculiarities, ethnical and culture traditions.


The population of Ukraine is 49,5 mln people. Ukraine is the 5th in Europe (after Germany, Italy, Great Britain, France) and the 21st in the World. Ukrainian population sets 7,3% of population of Europe and 1% of the World population. 68% of Ukrainians live in cities and 32% – in rural areas. The average density of population of Ukraine is 85 people per square kilometer. As per this indicator, Ukraine yields to many European countries. The density is not similar all over Ukraine. The most habitable is Donet’s region – 196 people per sq km. The less one – Chernihiv region – people per sq km


Ukraine is a country with developed scientific and productive basis. Ukrainian industrial potential includes machine production, ferrous and non–ferrous metallurgy, bus production, light and cargo vehicles production, tractors and other agrarian techniques production, production of diesel locomotives, lathes, equipment for Electric Power Plants, turbines, aviation engines and aircrafts, equipment for oil refinery and chemistry plants. Ukraine is a powerful energy producer.

Power Institutions of Ukraine

The President of Ukraine

The Constitution of Ukraine stipulates that President is the head of the State. He is a guarantee of State sovereign, its territorial unity, the leadership of Constitution, rights and freedoms of peoples and a citizen. Ukrainian citizens elect the President for 5 years on equity of the vote right. The president must be a citizen of Ukraine, must have lived in Ukraine for not less then 10 years before the elections, has a right to vote and speaks State language. The President can not be elected for 2 terms without a break.

Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine

The only Legislative Body of Ukraine is Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine – Ukrainian Parliament. People of Ukraine on equity of the vote elect people’s deputies right in mixed system (majority – proportion one). 450 People’s Deputies are elected. 225 of them are elected on one-mandate districts, 225 – those who are elected by parties lists in multi-mandate whole-Ukraine district on equity of proportional representation. Ukrainian Constitution and laws set the rights of People’s Deputies. PDs may unite into factions and groups on a condition that every group and faction consists of not less then 25 members. PDs’ groups may not form only on principles of parties’ membership. All the groups unite PDs of similar views and thoughts on state and social-economic development of the country.

The Government of Ukraine

The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Ukrainian Government) is the High Body of Executive Power of Ukraine. It acts according to the Constitution , laws of Ukraine, President’s Decrees. The Government is amenable to the President of Ukraine, controlled by Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. The Presidents appoints and resigns the Prime Minister on the agreement of Verkhovna Rada. The President appoints and resigns ministers on a proffer of the Prime Minister.

The Parliament adopts the budget, elaborated and presented by the Government, adopts resolution about budget realization, adopts or rejects the Program of the Government Activity, controls its work.


Constitutional Court and courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court is the highest judiciary body. Courts are the only bodies to provide justice in Ukraine. The system of courts is based on the territorial and specification principles. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is separate and independent from courts of general jurisdiction. It cannot be a court of Appeal, Cassation and Observation. The activity of the Constitutional Court provides constitutional control in all the spheres.

Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Geographic coordinates:
49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Asia, Europe
total: 603,700 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area – comparative:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 4,663 km
border countries:Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
2,782 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 56.21%
permanent crops: 1.61%
other: 42.18% (2001)
Irrigated land:
24,540 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment – current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl’ Nuclear Power Plant
Environment – international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography – note:
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe
47,425,336 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.6% (male 3,783,725/female 3,619,754)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 15,619,989/female 16,992,628)
65 years and over: 15.6% (male 2,497,851/female 4,911,389) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.22 years
male: 34.91 years
female: 41.21 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.63% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
10.49 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
16.42 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 20.34 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.68 years
male: 64.39 years
female: 75.31 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
1.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
360,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
20,000 (2003 est.)
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groups:
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)
Ukrainian Orthodox – Kiev Patriarchate 19%, Orthodox (no particular jurisdiction) 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox – Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38% (2004 est.)
Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%; small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
People – note:
the sex trafficking of Ukrainian women is a serious problem that has only recently been addressed